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Sivan Ilius View Drop Down
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  Quote Sivan Ilius Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Celtic Mythology
    Posted: 07 Jul 2009 at 9:59pm
Because we have Greek and Norse and because Jano says. . .
A thread for Celtic mythology!!! Behold! And post!
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  Quote DrWho7Freak Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Jul 2009 at 10:32pm
I love Celtic Myths and Legends.  My favourite new fantasy trilogy borrows heavily from Celtic Myth and Legends, such as Tam Lin the Goblin Market Place and lots of others. 
Tam Lin was also a song by Fairport Convention one of my favourite top ten songs as a matter of fact!
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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Jul 2009 at 10:44pm
I'll bring some images in here when I get a few spare moments and can be arsed to go skip them out from a cupboard somewhere or other LOL
 
Actually the Welsh myths and legends were really what started me off on fantasy reading as the stories were so beautiful - like the Children of Lir which is more subtle and aetherial than the Brothers Grimm, Perrrault and Andersen's stories by far
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
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  Quote DrWho7Freak Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Jul 2009 at 10:51pm
Tam Lin I think is Scots as well as Matty Groves.  I also love Selkies (sirens who have a seal skin) and the story of the giant who fell in love with an ordinary sized woman but could not have her.  His mother told him not to tread in water.  But the solution to his problem was a wise man living in an island in the ocean.  The giants causeway in fact ... on the way home it was flooded. 
 
The reason why Giants weren't supposed to step into the water was because they shrank in the wash and the story ended with him and the villager getting married.  The story made me cry! Soppy thing that I am.
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  Quote Sivan Ilius Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Jul 2009 at 11:39pm
I adore all the cycles--- the ulster and whatever other cycles they are. I like Cuchulainn Mac Nessa and other things about the ?fionin, was it? Just like how I really like Achilles and Odysseus and Greater Ajax (even though he's a big baby) and Aeneas and Persia's Rostam and so on and so forth. I like war, and I like warriors =D  ! Blood is good for the bones!
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  Quote Galen Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08 Jul 2009 at 5:35am
I'm fascinated by celtic things and know next to nothing, so I'm looking forward to hearing the discussions in here.
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  Quote chris.ph Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09 Jul 2009 at 5:51pm
did you know carmathen in west wales was named after merlin as he was supposed to be born there and a hundred other places, the welsh for carmarthen is something like caer myddrin and myddrin is welsh for merlin ish(you lot will probably notice my spelling is awful dont worry i cant spell in welsh either)
measuring intellgence by exam results is like measuring digestion by turd length
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  Quote Sivan Ilius Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09 Jul 2009 at 7:32pm
I'm not that surprised; the Welsh spell things so strangely!
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  Quote chris.ph Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10 Jul 2009 at 6:42pm

checked today its myrddin not myddrin

measuring intellgence by exam results is like measuring digestion by turd length
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  Quote Sivan Ilius Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11 Jul 2009 at 8:10am
how do you pronounce the y? Is it like an i? Also, dd is like our voiced th in lather, correct? and w is like oo? and for ll you put your tongue one the roof of your mouth and kinda blow, right? I can never figure out if I'm pronouncing Llywelyn the Great's name right or not.
 
and also! does anyone know how to pronounce "Vercingetorix"?
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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11 Jul 2009 at 1:34pm

Vercingetorix is debased Romano-Saxon more I think? Not many x's in the Celtic lexicon if at all (we need a Welsh/Gaelic pronounciation expert in here - Chris?) Hard C so a 'khuh' sound as in cuckoo rather than church I would say going by Sindarin which is v. Welsh...

So it might Ver-kin-get-or-icks...? Any takers on that?
 
Llewelyn would be fl-oo-wel-lin and if you can get some spit going with the fl... Trying to do it in a sing-song cadence helps too, separating the last 2 syllables so you actually say LIN rather than IN LOL
 
'Y' is indeed the 6th vowel and pronounced 'eye' and
 
'W' is almost always 'oo' except possibly when it's followed by another vowel (including of course a Y) - and as a case in point try saying vo-oo-el? So that does actually make sense vocally Evil Smile
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
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  Quote Galen Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 Jul 2009 at 4:23am
I so need a head explody icon
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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 Jul 2009 at 12:18pm
*Lays poor throbbing twin's head on soft bosom and massages gently* Heart
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
will do ~ Thomas Jefferson
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  Quote Sivan Ilius Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 Jul 2009 at 8:04pm
which syllables would be stressed in Vercingetorix and Llewelyn?
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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 Jul 2009 at 9:34pm
You're asking me? Dead
 
Fl-oo-wel-lin - I think anyway Ermm
 
Ver-kin-get-or-icks but I'm really winging on that Ouch
 
 
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
will do ~ Thomas Jefferson
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  Quote chris.ph Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 Jul 2009 at 3:22pm
llewellyn_thlewellin  ish
measuring intellgence by exam results is like measuring digestion by turd length
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  Quote chris.ph Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 Jul 2009 at 3:24pm
im from swansea jan not many welsh speakers here but i will try my best if there is any queries
measuring intellgence by exam results is like measuring digestion by turd length
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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 Jul 2009 at 3:28pm
*Nods* They're a little less 'keen' on the mother tongue down south I know (or more tolerant at least) Hug
 
I do know someone who's reasonable good with the 'Queen of Celtic languages' but so far he's resisting my wicked wiles to come on here (from Cardiff but not Tony I hasten to add! Tongue)
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
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  Quote chris.ph Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 Jul 2009 at 3:31pm
cardiff are worse than us
measuring intellgence by exam results is like measuring digestion by turd length
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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 Jul 2009 at 3:53pm
them with their fancy stadium and spiffy assembly... *mutters* Censored
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
will do ~ Thomas Jefferson
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  Quote Saranna Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29 Jul 2009 at 10:20pm

Myrddin is pronounced Mirthinn, more or less.  I as in 'in'.  The dpuble d is more or les the same as the Anglo-Saxon crossed d, or 'eth'.  Clearer?

BTW I can't get any smilies???????

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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29 Jul 2009 at 11:36pm
we have something up with the smilies tonight and some other of the pop-up menu features as well - we're hoping it's not something major as we may just have flicked a wrong button whilst we were fixing something else earlier...
 
if you use the Full Reply Editor or the full Post Reply buttons then you can at least get to the more 'popular' smileys from the side panel which still work Smile. Will investigate further on the server tomorrow with Galen and see if we can figure out what happened. Embarrassed
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
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  Quote Saranna Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15 Aug 2009 at 10:59am
Smilies fine - did Myrthinn have to use magic? LOL
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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15 Aug 2009 at 1:19pm
Dunno - he may well have subscribed to the 'Headology' branch of magic as defined by Terry Pratchett for the Discworld witches LOL
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
will do ~ Thomas Jefferson
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  Quote Nurbor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16 Aug 2009 at 2:11am
I think the single biggest celtic mythos is the Arthurian legend.  Though I hasten to add, it is not legend, but the world has been revised a few times since the land was as it were in Arthur's day.
 
However, I've done some reading recently on the celtic people and could suggest a good book or two for people looking into this area of historia.  I do reinactments of the middle ages (well from rome's death to elizabeth's death) and my character's based on Celto-brittanic england.  I skirt around an exact year as calendars have changed greatly over the years, and stick with "pagan" england because of issues I won't bore anyone with.
They lived their belief and if asked they would gladly die for it.Tell me now who in your glorious age holds such a belief? All that lives is born to die we must make the best of the time we are given
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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16 Aug 2009 at 2:26pm
 Wha' wuz 'at? Sleepy lol
 
Don't know that I absolutely agree with you on the legends as such Ancient One, as it rolls up a lot of tales that come from Europe and even parts of Africa including some that are best summed up as 'race memory'. The most prominent of these was the Lyonnesse/Atlantean aspects which most scholars these days agree is highly likely to refer to the geological events when the sea filled the lowland landmass between the Netherlands as far south as NE Brittany that finally severed England from Europe and gave us our own Atlantis myth  (and in its most ancient and 'proper' place too) and the 'forest under the sea' legends. This is of course opposed to the classical interpretation that centres around the hypercaustic explosion on the island of Santorini and found it's more recorded place in Bronze Age history all over the Mediterranean (including the Bible interestingly, as this may have accounted for the Israelites being able to cross the Red Sea without getting too wet...).
 
The rest of it is down to the classic druidic ban on Bards learning to write down their tales and verse and so relying on oral traditions and what they learned from other wandering bards, so stories got adapted and re-woven all over western Europe over time. This is seen in Lancelot for instance, who is largely recognised as coming from western France and others of the Round Table from Scotland and even Ireland (Guinevere in fact) and Wales of course. Arthur's own family were very vaguely located in Essex (Camulodunon to the Celts, Camulodunum to the Romans and now Colchester) where his grandfather Marcus Aurelius and his son, Arthur's putative father, Uther Pendragon are associated with; in the Orkneys, Scotland (where the father of Arthur's half-sisters including Morganna allegedly came from); and in Cornwall (where Arthur's mother lived with her husband King Mark).
 
That's Arthur's vaguely patched up 'RL heritage' so in that respect, supported by the druidic culture across Brittannia to Ierne that co-existed with early Christianity. To some extent that had a symbiotic relationship with the Pelagians who were responsible for one of the first great heresies when they tied in Easter and Christmas with the roughly equivalent (and lesser) Celtic festivals of Yule and Ostara which were based around the Winter Solstice and Spring Equinox. These two latter also coincided rather conveniently with spring lambing and bringing the herds in during the winter fire festivals. Wink
 
Legend is different to Myth only in terms of blurred memory and in crossing the line from vague record into prehistory. Arthurian types existed in much the same way as Robin Hood, but in context, the 'Knights' of Camelot were almost certainly petty chieftains who were united at certain times with common cause against the various barbarian incursions from the time of the withdrawal of Rome from northern and western Europe. The later establishment of the Anglo-Saxon and Viking monarchies also wound into the antagonism with the remnant Celtic strongholds in the most westerly regions of the British Isles.
 
There's this semi-obscure Brit TV series called Arthur of the Britons which is in my opinion the closest to what might have happened to cause a rough alliance of various tribes in the void left after the legions left Brittania - culturally and nearest to historical accounts anyway even if the storylines were entirely spurious - and no Merlin or magic in sight...
 
 
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
will do ~ Thomas Jefferson
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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16 Aug 2009 at 3:19pm

Ooops - that's only just family-friendly, but was the only decent vid I could find... Embarrassed 

Here's a slideshow which has better quality stills and more broadly representative. I said no magic but there was one character played by Jack Watson as Llud of the Silver Hand. Llud was a major Celtic deity and the one-handed or Silver Hand warrior was part of their Ragnarok-style legends...
I can't get this to work on here for some reason - go HERE for a short slide show which show more of the sets and the rest of the cast list.
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
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  Quote Sivan Ilius Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16 Aug 2009 at 5:54pm
According to Machiavelli in Florentine Histories, the Britons invited King Vortigern over one of the tribes of Anglo-Saxons to act as mercenary defenders against the Gauls, who recently overthrew their Roman rulers and therefore frightened the Britons with a threat of invasion. So I myself don't much sympathize with the early Britons.
But I read in some book called The Celts that had a theory that Atlantis used to be a part of Denmark and that there's proof since the Egyptians have some stories about distant peoples from the ocean coming randomly and sacking some of their cities. But the author also had a theory that all civilization began on the Volga River, rather than in the Fertile Crescent or on the Nile. Confused

Oh, and I have a theory myself! The ancient Irish had the deity "The Dagda" and by all the stories I've read on him, it sounds like he was a real chieftain but just deified due to his greatness. Does that sound reasonable?
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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 16 Aug 2009 at 8:48pm

Entirely - you have to remember that these people didn't have a lot of entertainment going on during the cold dark months so recreational drinking and mushroom-hunting was rife if they weren't on baby-making duty and so a lot of magic was certainly of the hallucinogenic variety and of course nature is anyway full of strange things that can't be easily explained.

Denmark is another even flatter country and parts of that would have had a similar submersive fate as the English Channel/North Sea as the glaciers receded into the polar regions and sea-levels rose accordingly. This would have been happening gradually between 20 - 10,000 years ago and so would easily have entered into oral traditions along coastal stretches in Western Europe, where grandparents would tell of the waters rising and lost lands. The North Sea also occasionally experiences great surges of tides - approximately every 1000 years (in living memory in the 1950s) so that also may have been happening more frequently and spectacularly around the time of neolithic homo sapiens' migrations northwards, then passed down in tales, gradually becoming more fanciful and fantastic as the rising North Sea wiped out any attempts at habitation or agriculture at the narrowest 22 mile wooded stretch of lowland between Kent and Normandy, but also all over East Anglia, Kent and Sussex in England and  the Continental Low Countries of which Denmark is the most northerly
 
As for the Vortigern thing - yep that was common practice all over Europe right into the 2nd millennium. Rome repeatedly paid off the barbarians who became more and more successful as the Empire broke in two and relied more on Christianity rather than the legions and in north-western Europe the Irish Celts and Vikings weren't above being paid off with gold or land deals. That is how the Normans (Norse Men) settled in Normandy then sailed up the Seine and terrorised Paris so much that Charles the Simple legally signed Normandy over to them and sent them home with a goodly monetary inducement and a highly dodgy vassalship to the French crown to keep them from re-offending. Tongue
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
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  Quote Jano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08 Feb 2013 at 10:24pm
Long time no post but I'm starting a new writing project that'll be based on some elements of the Celtic/Romano-British pantheon of deities along with aspects of 'weather' gods... Tongue
So this can serve as an info dump of suitable auspicious naming conventions in dog Welsh/Irish/Kernish Wink
(All transcribed from Wikipedia)

Deity 'Groups'

Antlered gods
Main article:Cernunnos
A recurrent figure in Gaulish iconography is a cross-legged deity with antlers, sometimes surrounded by animals, often wearing or holding a torc. The name usually applied to him, Cernunnos, is attested only a few times, on a relief at Notre Dame de Paris (currently reading ERNUNNOS, but an early sketch shows it as having read CERNUNNOS in the 18th century), an inscription from Montagnac (αλλετ[ει]υος καρνονου αλ[ι]σο[ντ]εας, "Alleteinos [dedicated this] to Karnonos of Alisontia"[8]), and a pair of identical inscriptions from Seinsel-Rëlent ("Deo Ceruninco"[9]). Figured representations of this sort of deity, however, are widespread; the earliest known was found at Val Camonica in northern Italy, while the most famous is plate A of the Gundestrup Cauldron, a 1st-century-BC vessel found in Denmark. On the Gundestrup Cauldron and sometimes elsewhere, Cernunnos, or similar figure, is accompanied by a ram-headed serpent. At Reims, the figure is depicted with a cornucopia overflowing with grains or coins.[2]
Healing deities
Main articles: Airmed, Belenus, Borvo, Brighid, and Grannus
Healing deities are known from many parts of the Celtic world; they frequently have associations with thermal springs, healing wells, herbalism and light.
Brighid, the triple goddess of healing, poetry and smithcraft is perhaps the most well-known of the Insular Celtic deities of healing. She is associated with many healing springs and wells. A lesser-known Irish healing goddess is Airmed, also associated with a healing well and with the healing art of herbalism.
In Romano-Celtic tradition Belenus (possibly from Celtic: *belen- ‘bright’ though other etymologies have been convincingly proposed[10]) is found chiefly in southern France andnorthern ItalyApollo Grannus, though concentrated in central and eastern Gaul, also “occurs associated with medicinal waters in Brittany [...] and far away in the Danube Basin”.[11] Grannus's companion is frequently the goddess Sirona. Another important Celtic deity of healing is Bormo/Borvo, particularly associated with thermal springs such as Bourbonne-les-Bains and Bourbon-Lancy. Such hot springs were (and often still are) believed to have therapeutic value. Green interprets the name Borvo to mean “seething, bubbling or boiling spring water”.[11]
Goddesses of sacred waters
Main articles: Sulis, Damona, and Sequana
In Ireland, there are numerous holy wells dedicated to the goddess Brighid. There are dedications to ‘Minerva’ in Britain and throughout the Celtic areas of the Continent. At Bath Minerva was identified with the goddess Sulis, whose cult there centred on the thermal springs.
Other goddesses were also associated with sacred springs, such as Icovellauna among the Treveri and Coventina at CarrawburghDamona and Bormana also serve this function in companionship with the spring-god Borvo (see above).
A number of goddesses were deified rivers, notably Boann (of the River Boyne), Sinann (the River Shannon), Sequana (the deified Seine), Matrona (the Marne), Souconna (the deified Saône) and perhaps Belisama (the Ribble).
While the most well-known deity of the sea is the god Manannán, possible early Irish sea goddesses include Fand, her sister Lí Ban, and the mother-goddess of the FomoriansDomnu.
Goddesses of horses
Main articles: Epona, Macha, and Rhiannon
The horse, an instrument of Indo-European expansion, plays a part in all the mythologies of the various Celtic cultures. The cult of the Gaulish horse goddess Epona was widespread. Adopted by the Roman cavalry, it spread throughout much of Europe, even to Rome itself. She seems to be the embodiment of "horse power" or horsemanship, which was likely perceived as a power vital for the success and protection of the tribe. She has insular analogues in the Welsh Rhiannon and in the Irish Édaín Echraidhe (echraidhe, "horse riding") and Macha, who outran the fastest steeds.
The Welsh horse goddess Rhiannon is best known from The Mabinogion, a collection of medieval Welsh tales, in which she makes her first appearance on a pale, mysterious steed and meets King Pwyll, whom she later marries. She was accused of killing and devouring her infant son, and in punishment she was forced to act as a horse and to carry visitors to the royal court. According to another story, she was made to wear the collars of asses about her neck in the manner of a beast.
The Irish horse goddess Macha, perhaps a threefold goddess herself, is associated with battle and sovereignty. Though a goddess in her own right, she is also considered to be part of the triple goddess of battle and slaughter, the Morrígan. Other faces of the Morrígan were Badhbh Catha and Nemain.
Mother goddesses
Main article: Matronae
Mother goddesses are a recurrent feature in Celtic religions. The epigraphic record reveals many dedications to the Matres or Matronae, which are particularly prolific around Cologne in the Rhineland.[7] Iconographically, Celtic mothers may appear singly or, quite often, triply; they usually hold fruit or cornucopiae or paterae;[2] they may also be full-breasted (or many-breasted) figures nursing infants.
Welsh and Irish tradition preserve a number of mother figures such as the Welsh DônRhiannon (‘great queen’) and Modron (from Matrona, ‘great mother’), and the Irish DanuBoandMacha and Ernmas. However, all of these goddesses fulfill many roles in the mythology and symbolism of the Celts, and cannot be limited only to motherhood. In many of their tales, their having children is only mentioned in passing, and is not a central facet of their identity. "Mother" Goddesses may also be Goddesses of warfare and slaughter, or of healing and smithcraft.
Mother goddesses were at times symbols of sovereignty, creativity, birth, fertility, sexual union and nurturing. At other times they could be seen as punishers and destroyers: their offspring may be helpful or dangerous to the community, and the circumstances of their birth may lead to curses, geasaor hardship, such as in the case of Macha's curse of the Ulstermen or Rhiannon's possible devouring of her child and subsequent punishment.
Cult of Lugh
According to Caesar the god most honoured by the Gauls was ‘Mercury’, and this is confirmed by numerous images and inscriptions. Mercury's name is often coupled with Celtic epithets, particularly in eastern and central Gaul; the commonest such names include VisuciusCissonius, and Gebrinius.[7] Another name, Lugus, is inferred from the recurrent place-name Lugdunon ('the fort of Lugus') from which the modern LyonLaon, and Loudun in France and Leiden in The Netherlands derive their names; a similar element can be found in Carlisle (formerly Castra Luguvallium), Legnica in Poland and the county Louth in Ireland, derived from the Irish "Lú", itself coming from "Lugh". The Irish and Welsh cognates of Lugus are Lugh and Lleu, respectively, and certain traditions concerning these figures mesh neatly with those of the Gaulish god. Caesar's description of the latter as "the inventor of all the arts" might almost have been a paraphrase of Lugh's conventional epithet samildánach("possessed of many talents"), while Lleu is addressed as "master of the twenty crafts" in the Mabinogi.[12] An episode in the Irish tale of the Battle of Magh Tuireadh is a dramatic exposition of Lugh's claim to be master of all the arts and crafts.[13] Inscriptions in Spain and Switzerland, one of them from a guild of shoemakers, are dedicated to Lugoves, widely interpreted as a plural of Lugus perhaps referring to the god conceived in triple form.
The Gaulish Mercury often seems to function as a god of sovereignty. Gaulish depictions of Mercury sometimes show him bearded and/or with wings or horns emerging directly from his head, rather than from a winged hat. Both these characteristics are unusual for the classical god. More conventionally, the Gaulish Mercury is usually shown accompanied by a ram and/or a rooster, and carrying a caduceus; his depiction at times is very classical.[2]
Lugh is said to have instituted the festival of Lughnasadh, celebrated on 1 August, in commemoration of his foster-mother Tailtiu.[14]
In Gaulish monuments and inscriptions, Mercury is very often accompanied by Rosmerta, whom Miranda Green interprets to be a goddess of fertility and prosperity. Green also notices that the Celtic Mercury frequently accompanies the Deae Matres (see below).[11]
Cult of Taranis
Main article: Taranis
The Gaulish Jupiter is often depicted with a thunderbolt in one hand and a distinctive wheel in the other. Scholars frequently identify this wheel/sky god with Taranis, who is mentioned by Lucan. The name Taranis may be cognate with those of Taran, a minor figure in Welsh mythology, and Turenn, the father of the 'three gods of Dana' in Irish mythology.
Cult of Toutatis
Teutates, also spelled Toutatis (Celtic: "(He of the tribe"), was one of three Celtic gods mentioned by the Roman poet Lucan in the 1st century,[15] the other two being Esus ("lord") and Taranis("thunderer"). According to later commentators, victims sacrificed to Teutates were killed by being plunged headfirst into a vat filled with an unspecified liquid. Present-day scholars frequently speak of ‘the toutates’ as plural, referring respectively to the patrons of the several tribes.[2] Of two later commentators on Lucan's text, one identifies Teutates with Mercury, the other with Mars. He is also known from dedications in Britain, where his name was written Toutatis.
Paul-Marie Duval, who considers the Gaulish Mars a syncretism with the Celtic toutates, notes that:
Les représentations de Mars, beaucoup plus rares [que celles de Mercure] (une trentaine de bas-reliefs), plus monotones dans leur académisme classique, et ses surnoms plus de deux fois plus nombreux (une cinquantaine) s'équilibrent pour mettre son importance à peu près sur le même plan que celle de Mercure mais sa domination n'est pas de même nature.
(“Mars' representations, much rarer [than Mercury's] (thirty-odd bas reliefs) and more monotone in their studied classicism, and his epithets which are more than twice as numerous (about fifty), balance each other to place his importance roughly on the same level as Mercury, but his domination is not of the same kind.” Duval 1993:71)[2]
Cult of Esus
Main article: Esus
Esus appears in two monumental statues as an axeman cutting branches from trees.
Gods with hammers
Main article: Sucellus
Sucellos, the 'good striker' is usually portrayed as a middle-aged bearded man, with a long-handled hammer, or perhaps a beer barrel suspended from a pole. His companion, Nantosuelta, is sometimes depicted alongside him. When together, they are accompanied by symbols associated with prosperity and domesticity. This figure is often identified with Silvanus, worshipped in southern Gaul under similar attributes; Dis Pater, from whom, according to Caesar, all the Gauls believed themselves to be descended; and the Irish Dagda, the 'good god', who possessed a cauldron that was never empty and a huge club.
Gods of strength and eloquence
Main article: Ogmios
A club-wielding god identified as Ogmios is readily observed in Gaulish iconography. In Gaul, he was identified with the Roman Hercules. He was portrayed as an old man with swarthy skin and armed with a bow and club. He was also a god of eloquence, and in that aspect he was represented as drawing along a company of men whose ears were chained to his tongue.
Ogmios' Irish equivalent was Ogma, who was impressively portrayed as a swarthy man whose battle ardour was so great that he had to be controlled by chains held by other warriors until the right moment. Ogham script, an Irish writing system dating from the 4th century AD, was said to have been invented by him.
The divine bull
Main article: Tarvos Trigaranus
Another prominent zoomorphic deity type is the divine bull. Tarvos Trigaranus ("bull with three cranes") is pictured on reliefs from the cathedral at Trier,Germany, and at Notre-Dame de Paris. In Irish literature, the Donn Cuailnge ("Brown Bull of Cooley") plays a central role in the epic Táin Bó Cuailnge ("TheCattle-Raid of Cooley").
The ram-headed snake
A distinctive ram-headed snake accompanies Gaulish gods in a number of representations, including the horned god from the Gundestrup cauldron, Mercury, and Mars.
The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one
will do ~ Thomas Jefferson
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